Basis of accounting
The financial statements of the Group have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The financial statements have also been prepared in accordance with IFRS adopted by the European Union and therefore the Group financial statements comply with Article 4 of EU IAS Regulation as adopted for use in the EU.
The Group has adopted Standards and Interpretations issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee of the IASB (IFRIC). Individual standards and interpretations have to be adopted by the European Commission (EC) and the process leads to a delay between the issue and adoption of new standards and in some cases amendment by the EC.
International Financial Reporting Standards are subject to ongoing amendment by the IASB and subsequent endorsement by the EC and are therefore subject to change.
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis, with the exception of accounting for certain financial instruments. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for the assets. The principal accounting policies adopted are set out below.
The directors have at the time of approving the financial statements a reasonable expectation that the Company and the Group have adequate resources to continue in operational existence for the foreseeable future. Thus they continue to adopt the going concern basis of accounting in preparing the financial statements. Further detail is contained in the Chief Financial Officer's report.
Basis of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the Company and entities controlled by the Company (its subsidiaries) made up to 31 December each year. Control is achieved where the Company has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an investee entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.
The results of subsidiaries acquired or disposed during the year are included in the consolidated income statement from the effective date of acquisition or up to the effective date of disposal, as appropriate. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring the accounting policies used in line with those used by the Group. All intra-group transactions, balances, income and expenses are eliminated on consolidation.
Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries are identified separately from the Group's equity therein. Those interests of non-controlling shareholders that are present ownership interests entitling their holders to a proportionate share of net assets upon liquidation may initially be measured at fair value or at the non-controlling interests' proportionate share of the fair value of the acquiree's identifiable net assets.
The choice of measurement is made on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis. Other non-controlling interests are initially measured at fair value.
Subsequent to acquisition, the carrying amount of non-controlling interests is the amount of those interests at initial recognition plus the non-controlling interests' share of subsequent changes in equity. Total comprehensive income is attributed to non-controlling interests even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance.
Changes in the Group's interests in subsidiaries that do not result in a loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions. The carrying amount of the Group's interests and the non-controlling interests are adjusted to reflect the changes in their relative interests in the subsidiaries. Any difference between the amount by which the non-controlling interests are adjusted and the fair value of the consideration paid or received is recognised directly in equity and attributed to the owners of the Company.
When the Group loses control of a subsidiary, the profit or loss on disposal is calculated as the difference between (i) the aggregate of the fair value of the consideration received and the fair value of any retained interest and (ii) the previous carrying amount of the assets (including goodwill), less liabilities of the subsidiary and any non-controlling interests. Amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to the subsidiary are accounted for (i.e. reclassified to profit or loss or transferred directly to retained earnings) in the same manner as would be required if the relevant assets or liabilities were disposed of. The fair value of any investment retained in the former subsidiary at the date when control is lost is regarded as the fair value on initial recognition for subsequent accounting under IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement or, when applicable, the costs on initial recognition of an investment in an associate or jointly controlled entity.
Critical judgements in applying the Group's accounting policies
In the process of applying the Group's accounting policies, which are described above, the directors have made the following judgements that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements (apart from those involving estimations, which are dealt with below) and have been identified as being particularly complex or involve subjective assessments.
Retirement benefit schemes
Accounting for retirement benefit schemes under IAS 19 (revised) requires an assessment of the future benefits payable in accordance with actuarial assumptions. The choice of discount rate applied in the calculation of scheme liabilities is a key judgement in applying the Group's accounting policy. Details of the accounting policies applied in respect of retirement benefit schemes are set out below.
Key sources of estimation uncertainty
The key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the balance sheet date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are discussed below.
Impairment of goodwill
Determining whether goodwill and fixed assets are impaired requires an estimation of the value in use of the cash-generating units to which the assets have been allocated. The value in use calculation requires the entity to estimate the future cash flows expected to arise from the cash-generating unit and a suitable discount rate in order to calculate present value. The carrying amount of goodwill at the balance sheet date was £160.9m (2015: £140.0m), with further details given in note 11. Details of the accounting policies applied in respect of impairment are set out below.
Retirement benefit schemes
Accounting for retirement benefit schemes under IAS 19 (revised) requires an assessment of the future benefits payable in accordance with actuarial assumptions. The future inflation assumptions applied in the calculation of scheme liabilities, which are set out in note 31, represent a key source of estimation uncertainty for the Group. Details of the accounting policies applied in respect of retirement benefit schemes are set out below.
Investments in associates
An associate is an entity over which the Group is in a position to exercise significant influence, but not control or joint control, through participation in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee.
The results and assets and liabilities of associates are incorporated in these financial statements using the equity method of accounting. Investments in associates are carried in the balance sheet at cost as adjusted by post-acquisition changes in the Group's share of the net assets of the associate, less any impairment in the value of individual investments. Losses of an associate in excess of the Group's interest in that associate (which includes any long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the Group's net investment in the associate) are recognised only to the extent that the Group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate.
Any excess of the cost of acquisition over the Group's share of the fair values of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the associate at the date of acquisition is recognised as goodwill. The goodwill is included within the carrying amount of the investment. Any deficiency of the cost of acquisition below the Group's share of the fair values of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the associate at the date of acquisition (i.e. discount on acquisition) is credited in profit and loss in the period of acquisition.
Where a Group Company transacts with an associate of the Group, profits and losses are eliminated to the extent of the Group's interest in the relevant associate. Losses may provide evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred, in which case appropriate provision is made for impairment.
Non-current assets held for sale
Non-current assets (and disposal groups) classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.
Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable and the asset (or disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Management must be committed to the sale which should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.
Goodwill arising in a business combination is recognised as an asset at the date that control is acquired (the acquisition date). Goodwill is measured as the excess of the cost of acquisition over the Group's interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of a subsidiary or associate at the date of acquisition. If after restatement, the Group's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities exceeds the cost of the business combination, the excess is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Goodwill is not amortised but is reviewed for impairment at least annually. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Group's cash-generating units expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. Cash-generating units to which goodwill has been allocated are tested for impairment at least annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than the carrying amount of the unit, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to assets of the unit on a pro-rata basis. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in a subsequent period.
On disposal of a subsidiary or associate, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal. Goodwill arising on acquisitions before the date of transition to IFRS has been retained at the previous UK GAAP amounts, subject to being tested for impairment at that date. Goodwill written off to reserves under UK GAAP prior to 1998 has not been reinstated and is not included in determining any subsequent profit or loss on disposal.
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and represents amounts receivable for goods and services provided in the normal course of business, net of discounts, VAT and other sales-related taxes.
Revenue is recognised on the completion of services rendered.
Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset's net carrying amount.
Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder's rights to receive payment have been established.
Other operating income represents scrap sales, rents receivable and other operating income.
The Group as lessee
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
Assets held under finance leases are recognised as assets of the Group at their fair value or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments, each determined at the inception of the lease. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Finance charges are charged directly against income.
Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to income on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.
Benefits received and receivable as an incentive to enter into an operating lease are also spread on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Transactions in currencies other than pounds sterling are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At each balance sheet date, monetary assets and liabilities that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated. Gains and losses arising on retranslation are included in net profit or loss for the period.
Exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for:
- exchange differences on transactions entered into to hedge certain foreign currency risks (see below); and
- exchange differences on monetary items receivable from or payable to a foreign operation for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur (therefore forming part of the net investment in the foreign operation) which are recognised initially in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income and reclassified from equity to profit or loss on disposal or partial disposal of the net investment.
On consolidation, the assets and liabilities of the Group's overseas operations are translated at exchange rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates for the period unless exchange rates fluctuate significantly. Exchange differences arising, if any, are classified as equity and transferred to the Group's translation reserve. Such translation differences are recognised as income or as expenses in the period in which the operation is disposed of.
Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the closing rate. The Group has elected to treat goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on acquisitions before the date of transition to IFRS as sterling-denominated assets and liabilities.
Borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use.
Government grants relating to property, plant and equipment are treated as deferred income and released to profit and loss over the expected useful lives of the assets concerned.
Operating profit is stated after charging restructuring costs, goodwill impairment, amortisation of acquired intangible assets and after the post-tax share of results of associates but before investment income and finance costs.
The Group considers exceptional items to be those which derive from events or transactions which are significant for separate disclosure by virtue of their size or incidence in order for the user to obtain a proper understanding of the Group's financial performance. These items include, but are not limited to, acquisition costs, impairment charges, reorganisation costs and profits and losses on disposal of subsidiaries and other one off items which meet this definition.
Retirement benefit costs
Payments to defined contribution are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions. Payments made to state-managed retirement benefit schemes are dealt with as payments to defined contribution schemes where the Group's obligations under the schemes are equivalent to those arising in a defined contribution retirement benefit scheme.
For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each reporting period. Remeasurement comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on scheme assets (excluding interest) are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit to the statement of comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recorded in the statement of comprehensive income is not recycled. Past service cost is recognised in profit or loss in the period of scheme amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying a discount rate to the defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are split into three categories:
- current service cost, past-service cost and gains and losses on curtailments and settlements;
- net interest expense or income; and
The Group presents the first two components of defined benefit costs within cost of sales and administrative expenses (see note 3) in its consolidated income statement. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past-service cost.
Net-interest expense or income is recognised within finance costs (see note 7).
The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the consolidated balance sheet represents the deficit or surplus in the Group's defined benefit schemes. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the schemes or reductions in future contributions to the schemes.
A liability for a termination benefit is recognised at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognises any related restructuring costs.
The tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year or tax assessment adjustments made to prior years. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the income statement because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group's liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit, and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments and interests are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which to utilise the benefits of the temporary differences and they are expected to reverse in the foreseeable future.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset is realised based on tax laws and rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the income statement, except when it relates to items charged or credited in other comprehensive income, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in other comprehensive income.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Group expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and any recognised impairment loss.
Depreciation is charged so as to write off the cost of assets, other than land and properties under construction, less their residual values, over their estimated useful lives, using the straight-line method, on the following bases:
|Leasehold property||over the period of the lease|
|Fixtures and fittings||10%–20%|
|Plant and machinery||5%–20%|
Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets or, where shorter, over the term of the relevant lease. The gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an asset is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in income.
Assets in the course of construction are carried at cost, plus appropriate borrowing costs, less any recognised impairment loss. Depreciation commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.
Acquisitions of subsidiaries and businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration for each acquisition is measured at the aggregate of the fair values (at the date of exchange) of assets given, liabilities incurred or assumed, and equity instruments issued by the Group in exchange for control of the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.
Subsequent changes in such fair values are adjusted against the cost of acquisition where they qualify as measurement period adjustments. All other subsequent changes in the fair value of contingent consideration classified as an asset or liability are accounted for in accordance with relevant IFRSs.
The acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities that meet the conditions for recognition under IFRS 3 (2008) are recognised at their fair value at the acquisition date, except that:
- deferred tax assets or liabilities and liabilities or assets related to employee benefit arrangements are recognised and measured in accordance with IAS 12 Income Taxes and IAS 19 (revised) Employee Benefits respectively; and
- liabilities or equity instruments related to the replacement by the Group of an acquiree's share-based payment awards are measured in accordance with IFRS 2 Share-based Payment.
Assets (or disposal groups) that are classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations are measured in accordance with that standard.
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Intangible assets acquired in a business combination and recognised separately from goodwill are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date (which is regarded as their cost). Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets acquired in a business combination are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.
Amortisation of these assets is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, on the following bases:
Amortisation is recognised within administration expenses.
Impairment of tangible and intangible assets excluding goodwill
At each balance sheet date, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where the asset does not generate cash flows that are independent from other assets, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised as an expense immediately.
Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised as income immediately.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost comprises direct materials and, where applicable, direct labour costs and those overheads that have been incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price less all estimated costs of completion and costs to be incurred in marketing, selling and distribution.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised on the Group's balance sheet when the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
Loans and receivables
Trade receivables, loans, and other receivables that have fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market are classified as 'loans and receivables'. Loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment. Interest income is recognised by applying the effective interest rate, except for trade receivables, which do not carry any interest and are stated at their nominal value as reduced by appropriate allowances for estimated irrecoverable amounts.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash in hand and demand deposits and other short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to a known amount of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Financial liabilities and equity
Financial liabilities and equity instruments are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into. An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Group after deducting all of its liabilities.
Interest-bearing bank loans and overdrafts are recorded at the proceeds received, net of transaction costs. Finance charges, including premiums payable on settlement or redemption and direct issue costs, are accounted for on an accruals basis to the income statement using the effective interest method and are added to the carrying amount of the instrument to the extent that they are not settled in the period in which they arise.
Other financial liabilities
Other financial liabilities are not interest-bearing and are stated at their nominal value.
Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Group derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Group's obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire.
Equity instruments issued by the Company are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
Impairment of financial assets
Financial assets are assessed for indicators of impairment at each balance sheet date. Financial assets are impaired where there is objective evidence that, as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the financial asset, the estimated future cash flows of the investment have been impacted.
Objective evidence of impairment could include:
- significant financial difficulty of the customer or counterparty; or
- default or delinquency in payments.
For certain categories of financial asset, such as trade receivables, assets that are assessed not to be impaired individually are subsequently assessed for impairment on a collective basis. Objective evidence of impairment for a portfolio of receivables could include the Group's past experience of collecting payments, an increase in the number of delayed payments in the portfolio past the average credit period, as well as observable changes in national or local economic conditions that correlate with default on receivables.
The carrying amount of the financial asset is reduced by the impairment loss directly for all financial assets with the exception of trade receivables, where the carrying amount is reduced through the use of an allowance account. When a trade receivable is considered uncollectable, it is written off against the allowance account. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are credited against the allowance account. Changes in the carrying amount of the allowance account are recognised in profit or loss.
Derivative financial instruments
The Group uses derivative financial instruments, in particular interest rate swaps, foreign currency swaps and forward exchange contracts, to manage the financial risks arising from the business activities and the financing of those activities. The Group does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.
The use of financial derivatives is governed by the Group's policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provide written principles on the use of financial derivatives.
Derivative financial instruments are recognised as assets and liabilities measured at their fair value on the balance sheet date. Changes in the fair value of any derivative instruments that do not fulfil the criteria for hedge accounting contained in IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement are recognised immediately in the income statement. A derivative is presented as a non-current asset or a non-current liability if the remaining maturity of the instrument is more than 12 months and it is not expected to be realised or settled within 12 months.
The Group uses foreign currency debt and cross currency swaps to hedge its exposure to changes in the underlying net assets of overseas operations arising from foreign exchange rate movements.
The Group maintains documentation of the relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument at the inception of a hedging transaction together with the risk management objective and the strategy underlying the designated hedge. The Group also documents its assessment, both at the inception of the hedging relationship and subsequently on an ongoing basis, of the effectiveness of the hedge in offsetting movements in the fair values or cash flows of the hedged items.
When hedge accounting is used, the relevant hedging relationships are classified as fair value hedges, cash flow hedges or net investment hedges.
Note 19 sets out the details of the fair values of the derivative instruments used for hedging purposes.
Fair value hedge
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the income statement, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. The change in the fair value of the hedging instrument and the change in the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognised in the line of the income statement relating to the hedged item.
Cash flow hedge
Cash flow hedging matches the cash flows of hedged items against the corresponding cash flow of the derivative. The effective part of any gain or loss on the derivative is recognised directly in other comprehensive income and the hedged item is accounted for in accordance with the policy for that financial instrument. Any ineffective part of any gain or loss is recognised immediately in the income statement.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in equity is retained in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in equity is transferred to net profit or loss for the period.
Net investment hedge
Hedges of net investments in foreign operations are accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges. To the extent the hedge is effective, changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument arising from the hedged risk are recognised in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income and accumulated in the hedging and translation reserve. The gain or loss relating to any ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the income statement and is included in other operating expenses.
Gains and losses accumulated in equity are included in the income statement in the event that the foreign operation is disposed of.
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, when it is probable that the Group will be required to settle that obligation and when a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. Where a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation and the effect of the adjustment is material in relation to the financial statements, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows.
The Group has applied the requirements of IFRS 2 Share-based Payments.
The Group issues equity-settled share-based payments to certain employees. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value at the date of grant. The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. At each balance sheet date, the Group revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest as a result of the effect of non-market based vesting conditions. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognised in profit or loss such that the cumulative expense reflects the revised estimates with a corresponding adjustment to the equity-settled employee benefits reserve.
Bodycote plc is a company incorporated in the United Kingdom under the Companies Act. The address of the registered office is given in the Board of Directors.
The nature of the Group's operations and its principal activities are included within the Group's Strategic report.
Information on the Group's objectives, policies and processes are included within the Group's Strategic report.
Items included in the financial statements of each entity in the Group are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. The consolidated financial statements are presented in pounds sterling, which is the functional and presentation currency of the Parent. Foreign operations are included in accordance with the policies set out in the foreign currencies accounting policy.
Adoption of new and revised standards
In the current year, the following new and revised standards and interpretations have been adopted:
- Amendments to IAS 1
- Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38
- Amendments to IAS 27
- Annual improvements to IFRSs
- Disclosure initiative
- Clarification of acceptable methods of depreciation and amortisation
- Equity method in separate financial statements
- 2012-2014 cycle (September 2014)
The above interpretations and revised standards have not had any material impact on the amounts reported in these financial statements or the disclosures required.
At the date of authorisation of these financial statements, the following standards and interpretations which have not been applied in these financial statements were in issue but not yet effective (and in some cases had not yet been endorsed by the EU):
- IFRS 9
- IFRS 15
- Clarifications to IFRS 15
- IFRS 16
- Amendments to IFRS 2
- Amendments to IAS 7
- Amendments to IAS 12
- IFRIC 22
- Annual improvements to IFRSs
- Financial Instruments
- Revenue from contracts with customers
- Clarifications to IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers
- Classification and measurement of share-based payment transactions
- Disclosure initiative
- Recognition of deferred tax assets for unrealised losses
- Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration
- 2014-2016 cycle (December 2016)
The directors do not expect that the adoption of the standards listed above will have a material impact on the financial statements of the Group in future periods, except as follows:
- IFRS 9 is effective for annual periods beginning 1 January 2018 and will replace IAS 39 Financial Instruments. This standard covers the classification, measurement, impairment and de-recognition of financial assets and financial liabilities, together with the new hedge accounting model. The Group does not expect the transition to the standard to have a material impact on the financial statements.
- IFRS 15 is effective for annual periods beginning 1 January 2018 and will replace IAS 11 Construction Contracts and IAS 18 Revenue. This standard requires the separation of performance obligations within contracts with customers, and the contractual value to be allocated to each of the performance obligations. Revenue is then recognised as each performance obligation is satisfied. Retrospective application in the comparative year ending 31 December 2017 is optional, however the Group does not expect to undertake this option. An initial assessment has been performed and it is not anticipated that transition to IFRS 15 will have a material impact on the Group.
- IFRS 16 is effective for annual periods beginning 1 January 2019, subject to EU endorsement, and will replace IAS 17 Leases. This standard requires lessees to recognise assets and liabilities for all leases, unless the lease term is 12 months or less, or the underlying asset is of low value. As at 31 December 2016, the Group holds a significant number of operating leases, which currently, under IAS 17, are expensed on a straight line basis over the lease term. Retrospective application in the comparative year ending 31 December 2018 is optional, however the Group does not expect to undertake this option. An initial assessment has been performed and it is anticipated that transition to IFRS 16 will have a material impact on the value of lease assets and liabilities recognised in the consolidated balance sheet. The Group will continue to monitor the impact until the transition date, providing further quantitative and qualitative measures as progress is made on implementation planning.
Beyond the information above, it is not practicable to provide a reasonable financial estimate of the effect of these standards until a detailed review has been completed.