Restructuring environmental
At 1 January 20168.16.66.621.3
Increase in provision5.01.06.0
Release of provision(0.6)(0.8)(0.2)(1.6)
Utilisation of provision(6.3)(1.3)(0.4)(8.0)
Exchange difference0.
At 31 December 20166.
Included in current liabilities11.7
Included in non-current liabilities8.8

The restructuring provision relates to the costs associated with the closure of a number of Heat Treatment sites. The net addition to restructuring and restructuring environmental provisions of £4.6m relates to costs associated with new restructuring initiatives announced, primarily in Canada.

The Group provides for the costs of environmental remediation that have been identified, either as part of acquisition due diligence, or in other circumstances where remediation by the Group is required. This provision is reviewed annually and is separated into restructuring environmental and environmental to identify separately environmental provisions relating to the restructuring programme from those arising in the ordinary course of business.

The majority of cash outflows in respect of these liabilities are expected to occur within five years.

Whilst the Group's use of chlorinated solvents and other hazardous chemicals continues to reduce, the Group remains exposed to contingent liabilities in respect of environmental remediation liabilities. In particular, the Group could be subjected to regulatory or legislative requirements to remediate sites in the future. However, it is not possible at this time to determine whether and to what extent any liabilities exist, other than for those recognised above. Therefore no provision is recognised in relation to these items.